It is noteworthy that mechanisation has remained slow in the State despite relatively high agricultural wages and shortage of labour for agricultural work. In —09, when the project was initiated, the Green Army had members. Marx , Vol. Unlike other States, Kerala can implement mechanisation of agricultural operations without fear of displacing labour. Power threshers and combine harvesters were introduced to Kerala only recently and their numbers in were small, at only threshers and combine harvesters. In short, many of these small time entrepreneurs who dealt with him are now in anguish with bankruptcy, divorce, loan sharks, property refinancing, back to becoming a wage earner etc. The returns from agricultural activities may not be high enough to offset the interest cost on capital invested in buying land.

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In the saline and inundated Kaippad paddy lands in Ezhome village, Kannur districta different type of machinery is required to prepare the soil.

Some labour-intensive crops, such as pulses, sugarcane, sesamum, finger millet ragiand other millets, which were among the principal crops of Kerala, are no longer cultivated. Thus the economy of Kerala is in the middle of a major structural shift, characterised by a substantial decline in the percentage share of agriculture in terms of both income and employment, and the emergence of the services sector as the mainstay of the economy.

Correspondingly, the share of the tertiary sector went up from about 51 per cent to nearly 71 per cent.

In Punjab there is a tractor for every 10 hectares of cultivated land Singh A capitalist who buys farm machines for hiring out in the rental market is also constrained by idle capacity, as he may not be able to utilise the machines throughout the year due to the excess production time and seasonality of crops. The improvement of indigenous agricultural implements, and distribution of irrigation machinery and tractors were a part of the agricultural agenda of the Second Five Year Esearan.

Visit by YBhg Dato’ K.K Eswaran, 2012

The use of machinery can promote savings in the costs of agricultural ok. The movement of labour to non-agricultural activities and opportunities outside the State resulted in increases in real wages for agricultural work in Kerala as compared to other States in India.


The expansion, in —07, of the gross cultivated area of paddy in Wadakkanchery block panchayat from nearly 3, hectares to about 4, hectares can be attributed to these collective efforts.

Attempts to conceptually link the crisis in agriculture to the overall transformation of the economy have thrown light on some important features of the economy of Kerala. There has been a steady decline in the area under paddy cultivation from the mids: Migrants, or, for that matter, anybody with investible funds, view land as an attractive and fairly secure asset for investment.

Recent data confirm the concentration of machinery in north-western India Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. It has also given an organised character to the arrangement of labour supply in the region.

Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Paduka Dr Lim Kok Wing

In Kerala, 95 per cent of rural households owned less than one ha of land. In the early years of the Five Year Plans, technological issues in agriculture were not given serious consideration. The status of agriculture as a major provider of employment has also declined at a rapid pace. In India as a whole, 80 per cent of rural households owned less than one ha of land.

Data on agricultural machinery Table 3 show that inthere were power tillers and four wheel tractors in Kerala. This observation is relevant not only for calculating the costs and returns from agriculture, but also in the economics of acquisition or use of constant capital items such as tractors or combine harvesters that require sizeable investment outlays.

Those who were forced to work on the land now used the freedom of mobility to exit agriculture. It is not surprising that the atomisation of farming and the globalisation of markets occur simultaneously. The UNIDO study predicts that India will improve its position and move to the fifth level of mechanisation in the next 10 years, whereas China will move to the ninth level.


Another aspect of production relations that shows up in an analysis of the costs and returns of farming is the predominance of wage labour. Here is how to contribute.

I will unleash my bulldog on you people – Kenneth Eswaran | Home | My 2 Cents View

esawran In the next year, —71, it was able to supply tractors, 65 power tillers, and 2, pump sets. Interestingly, more than half of all combine harvesters in the country are in Haryana, while Punjab lags behind with only three per cent.

This acts as a disincentive to invest in costly agricultural machinery. It is only in rice cultivation that we see some degree of mechanisation, but only in the major rice-growing regions of the State. These two experiments, the Wadakkanchery labour bank and the Kudappanakkunnu Karshika Karma Sena, show that an institutional arrangement based on collective organisation can overcome the twin problems of labour shortage and lack of capital investment in machinery faced by small farmers.

Journal of Political Economy, vol.

Agrarian Question and Democratic Decentralization in Kerala

This article is dedicated to Professor Sam Moyo, whose work on radical land reform in Zimbabwe within a neoliberal environment has engaged our attention and illuminated the subject of our own research, the agrarian question in post-land reform Kerala. Hence the product is in general increasing in price, since the transfer of value to it is not calculated according to the time during which the fixed capital functions but according to the time during which it depreciates in value.

The Karshika Karma Sena KKSregistered as a charitable society, is an organisation of 40 small and marginal farmers that offers a range of services.